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Based on data from 12 participants, Overall Mood is generally highest after an average of 85 beats per minute of Heart Rate (Pulse) over the previous 7 days.
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People with higher Heart Rate (Pulse) usually have higher Overall Mood
Each column represents the number of days this value occurred.
This chart shows the typical value recorded for Heart Rate (Pulse) on each day of the week.
This chart shows the typical value recorded for Heart Rate (Pulse) for each month of the year.
Each column represents the number of days this value occurred.
This chart shows the typical value recorded for Overall Mood on each day of the week.
This chart shows the typical value recorded for Overall Mood for each month of the year.

Abstract

Aggregated data from 12 study participants suggests with a medium degree of confidence (p=0.24051284444236, 95% CI -0.235 to 0.44) that Heart Rate (Pulse) has a weakly positive predictive relationship (R=0.1) with Overall Mood. The highest quartile of Overall Mood measurements were observed following an average 86.69 beats per minute Heart Rate (Pulse). The lowest quartile of Overall Mood measurements were observed following an average 85.424352909601 bpm Heart Rate (Pulse).

Objective

The objective of this study is to determine the nature of the relationship (if any) between Heart Rate and Overall Mood. Additionally, we attempt to determine the Heart Rate (Pulse) values most likely to produce optimal Overall Mood values.

Participant Instructions

Get Withings here and use it to record your Heart Rate (Pulse). Once you have a Withings account, you can import your data from the Import Data page. This individual's data will automatically be imported and analyzed.
Record your Overall Mood daily in the reminder inbox or using the interactive web or mobile notifications.

Design

This study is based on data donated by 12 participants. Thus, the study design is equivalent to the aggregation of 12 separate n=1 observational natural experiments.

Data Analysis

Heart Rate (Pulse) Pre-Processing
Heart Rate (Pulse) measurement values below 0 beats per minute were assumed erroneous and removed. No maximum allowed measurement value was defined for Heart Rate (Pulse). No missing data filling value was defined for Heart Rate (Pulse) so any gaps in data were just not analyzed instead of assuming zero values for those times.
Heart Rate (Pulse) Analysis Settings

Overall Mood Pre-Processing
Overall Mood measurement values below 1 out of 5 were assumed erroneous and removed. Overall Mood measurement values above 5 out of 5 were assumed erroneous and removed. No missing data filling value was defined for Overall Mood so any gaps in data were just not analyzed instead of assuming zero values for those times.
Overall Mood Analysis Settings

Predictive Analytics
It was assumed that 0 hours would pass before a change in Heart Rate (Pulse) would produce an observable change in Overall Mood. It was assumed that Heart Rate (Pulse) could produce an observable change in Overall Mood for as much as 7 days after the stimulus event.
Predictive Analysis Settings

Data Sources

Heart Rate (Pulse) data was primarily collected using Withings. Withings creates smart products and apps to take care of yourself and your loved ones in a new and easy way. Discover the Withings Pulse, Wi-Fi Body Scale, and Blood Pressure Monitor.

Overall Mood data was primarily collected using QuantiModo. QuantiModo allows you to easily track mood, symptoms, or any outcome you want to optimize in a fraction of a second. You can also import your data from over 30 other apps and devices. QuantiModo then analyzes your data to identify which hidden factors are most likely to be influencing your mood or symptoms.

Limitations

As with any human experiment, it was impossible to control for all potentially confounding variables. Correlation does not necessarily imply causation. We can never know for sure if one factor is definitely the cause of an outcome. However, lack of correlation definitely implies the lack of a causal relationship. Hence, we can with great confidence rule out non-existent relationships. For instance, if we discover no relationship between mood and an antidepressant this information is just as or even more valuable than the discovery that there is a relationship.
We can also take advantage of several characteristics of time series data from many subjects to infer the likelihood of a causal relationship if we do find a correlational relationship. The criteria for causation are a group of minimal conditions necessary to provide adequate evidence of a causal relationship between an incidence and a possible consequence.

The list of the criteria is as follows:
Strength (A.K.A. Effect Size)
A small association does not mean that there is not a causal effect, though the larger the association, the more likely that it is causal. There is a weakly positive relationship between Heart Rate (Pulse) and Overall Mood

Consistency (A.K.A. Reproducibility)
Consistent findings observed by different persons in different places with different samples strengthens the likelihood of an effect. Furthermore, in accordance with the law of large numbers (LLN), the predictive power and accuracy of these results will continually grow over time. 152 paired data points were used in this analysis. Assuming that the relationship is merely coincidental, as the participant independently modifies their Heart Rate (Pulse) values, the observed strength of the relationship will decline until it is below the threshold of significance. To it another way, in the case that we do find a spurious correlation, suggesting that banana intake improves mood for instance, one will likely increase their banana intake. Due to the fact that this correlation is spurious, it is unlikely that you will see a continued and persistent corresponding increase in mood. So over time, the spurious correlation will naturally dissipate.

Specificity
Causation is likely if a very specific population at a specific site and disease with no other likely explanation. The more specific an association between a factor and an effect is, the bigger the probability of a causal relationship.

Temporality
The effect has to occur after the cause (and if there is an expected delay between the cause and expected effect, then the effect must occur after that delay). The confidence in a causal relationship is bolstered by the fact that time-precedence was taken into account in all calculations.

Biological Gradient
Greater exposure should generally lead to greater incidence of the effect. However, in some cases, the mere presence of the factor can trigger the effect. In other cases, an inverse proportion is observed: greater exposure leads to lower incidence.

Plausibility
A plausible bio-chemical mechanism between cause and effect is critical. This is where human brains excel. Based on our responses so far, 5 humans feel that there is a plausible mechanism of action and 2 feel that any relationship observed between Heart Rate (Pulse) and Overall Mood is coincidental.

Coherence
Coherence between epidemiological and laboratory findings increases the likelihood of an effect. It will be very enlightening to aggregate this data with the data from other participants with similar genetic, diseasomic, environmentomic, and demographic profiles.

Experiment
All of human life can be considered a natural experiment. Occasionally, it is possible to appeal to experimental evidence.

Analogy
The effect of similar factors may be considered.

Relationship Statistics

Property Value
Cause Variable Name Heart Rate (Pulse)
Effect Variable Name Overall Mood
Sinn Predictive Coefficient 0.048955179131548
Confidence Level medium
Confidence Interval 0.33713111270329
Forward Pearson Correlation Coefficient 0.1024
Critical T Value 1.7289166666667
Average Heart Rate ( Pulse) Over Previous 7 days Before ABOVE Average Overall Mood 86.69 beats per minute
Average Heart Rate ( Pulse) Over Previous 7 days Before BELOW Average Overall Mood 85.424352909601 beats per minute
Duration of Action 7 days
Effect Size weakly positive
Number of Paired Measurements 152
Optimal Pearson Product 0.11882484785715
P Value 0.24051284444236
Statistical Significance 0.47675833284544
Strength of Relationship 0.33713111270329
Study Type population
Analysis Performed At 2019-04-06
Number of Participants 12

Heart Rate (Pulse) Statistics

Property Value
Variable Name Heart Rate (Pulse)
Aggregation Method MEAN
Analysis Performed At 2019-04-01
Duration of Action 7 days
Kurtosis 6.1922007754083
Mean 2544.0407282609 beats per minute
Median 2535.9534174663 beats per minute
Minimum Allowed Value 0 beats per minute
Number of Correlations 738
Number of Measurements 172586
Onset Delay 0 seconds
Standard Deviation 214.30941770524
Unit Beats per Minute
UPC 851697006178
Variable ID 1342
Variance 2912445.6042345

Overall Mood Statistics

Property Value
Variable Name Overall Mood
Aggregation Method MEAN
Analysis Performed At 2019-04-03
Duration of Action 24 hours
Kurtosis 3.7383708126619
Maximum Allowed Value 5 out of 5
Mean 3.1156748504321 out of 5
Median 3.1369047348216 out of 5
Minimum Allowed Value 1 out of 5
Number of Correlations 1149
Number of Measurements 605816
Onset Delay 0 seconds
Standard Deviation 0.56833853113207
Unit 1 to 5 Rating
UPC 767674073845
Variable ID 1398
Variance 0.43884384603152

Tracking Heart Rate (Pulse)

Get Withings here and use it to record your Heart Rate (Pulse). Once you have a Withings account, you can import your data from the Import Data page. This individual's data will automatically be imported and analyzed.

Tracking Overall Mood

Record your Overall Mood daily in the reminder inbox or using the interactive web or mobile notifications.
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https://lh6.googleusercontent.com/-BHr4hyUWqZU/AAAAAAAAAAI/AAAAAAAIG28/2Lv0en738II/photo.jpg Principal Investigator - Mike Sinn