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This individual's Heart Rate (Pulse) is generally highest after an average of 0.71 pills of Vitamin B Complex over the previous 7 days.
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Blue represents the mean of Vitamin B Complex over the previous 7 days
An increase in 7 days cumulative Vitamin B Complex is usually followed by an increase in Heart Rate (Pulse). (R = 0.071)
Typical values for Heart Rate (Pulse) following a given amount of Vitamin B Complex over the previous 7 days.
Typical Vitamin B Complex seen over the previous 7 days preceding the given Heart Rate (Pulse) value.
This chart shows how your Vitamin B Complex changes over time.
Each column represents the number of days this value occurred.
This chart shows the typical value recorded for Vitamin B Complex on each day of the week.
This chart shows the typical value recorded for Vitamin B Complex for each month of the year.
This chart shows how your Heart Rate (Pulse) changes over time.
Each column represents the number of days this value occurred.
This chart shows the typical value recorded for Heart Rate (Pulse) on each day of the week.
This chart shows the typical value recorded for Heart Rate (Pulse) for each month of the year.

Abstract

This individual's Heart Rate (Pulse) is generally 1% higher than normal after an average of 0.7143 pills Vitamin B Complex over the previous 7 days. This individual's data suggests with a high degree of confidence (p=0.095742537670723, 95% CI -2.512 to 2.654) that Vitamin B Complex (pills) has a very weakly positive predictive relationship (R=0.07) with Heart Rate (Pulse). The highest quartile of Heart Rate (Pulse) measurements were observed following an average 0.44 pills Vitamin B Complex (pills). The lowest quartile of Heart Rate (Pulse) measurements were observed following an average 0.41142408846384 pills Vitamin B Complex (pills).Heart Rate (Pulse) is generally 1% lower than normal after an average of 0.41142408846384 pills of Vitamin B Complex over the previous 7 days. Heart Rate (Pulse) is generally 1% higher after an average of 0.44 pills of Vitamin B Complex over the previous 7 days.

Objective

The objective of this study is to determine the nature of the relationship (if any) between Vitamin B Complex and Heart Rate. Additionally, we attempt to determine the Vitamin B Complex (pills) values most likely to produce optimal Heart Rate values.

Participant Instructions

Record your Vitamin B Complex daily in the reminder inbox or using the interactive web or mobile notifications.
Get Withings here and use it to record your Heart Rate (Pulse). Once you have a Withings account, you can import your data from the Import Data page. This individual's data will automatically be imported and analyzed.

Design

This study is based on data donated by one participant. Thus, the study design is consistent with an n=1 observational natural experiment.

Data Analysis

Vitamin B Complex Pre-Processing
Vitamin B Complex measurement values below 0 pills were assumed erroneous and removed. Vitamin B Complex measurement values above 20 pills were assumed erroneous and removed. It was assumed that any gaps in Vitamin B Complex data were unrecorded 0 pills measurement values.
Vitamin B Complex Analysis Settings

Heart Rate (Pulse) Pre-Processing
Heart Rate (Pulse) measurement values below 0 beats per minute were assumed erroneous and removed. No maximum allowed measurement value was defined for Heart Rate (Pulse). No missing data filling value was defined for Heart Rate (Pulse) so any gaps in data were just not analyzed instead of assuming zero values for those times.
Heart Rate (Pulse) Analysis Settings

Predictive Analytics
It was assumed that 0.5 hours would pass before a change in Vitamin B Complex (pills) would produce an observable change in Heart Rate (Pulse). It was assumed that Vitamin B Complex (pills) could produce an observable change in Heart Rate (Pulse) for as much as 7 days after the stimulus event.
Predictive Analysis Settings

Data Quantity
37 raw Vitamin B Complex (pills) measurements with 112 changes spanning 1304 days from 2013-03-07 to 2016-10-01 were used in this analysis. 15805 raw Heart Rate (Pulse) measurements with 663 changes spanning 2239 days from 2012-12-16 to 2019-02-01 were used in this analysis.

Data Sources

Vitamin B Complex (pills) data was primarily collected using QuantiModo. QuantiModo allows you to easily track mood, symptoms, or any outcome you want to optimize in a fraction of a second. You can also import your data from over 30 other apps and devices. QuantiModo then analyzes your data to identify which hidden factors are most likely to be influencing your mood or symptoms.

Heart Rate (Pulse) data was primarily collected using Withings. Withings creates smart products and apps to take care of yourself and your loved ones in a new and easy way. Discover the Withings Pulse, Wi-Fi Body Scale, and Blood Pressure Monitor.

Limitations

As with any human experiment, it was impossible to control for all potentially confounding variables. Correlation does not necessarily imply causation. We can never know for sure if one factor is definitely the cause of an outcome. However, lack of correlation definitely implies the lack of a causal relationship. Hence, we can with great confidence rule out non-existent relationships. For instance, if we discover no relationship between mood and an antidepressant this information is just as or even more valuable than the discovery that there is a relationship.
We can also take advantage of several characteristics of time series data from many subjects to infer the likelihood of a causal relationship if we do find a correlational relationship. The criteria for causation are a group of minimal conditions necessary to provide adequate evidence of a causal relationship between an incidence and a possible consequence.

The list of the criteria is as follows:
Strength (A.K.A. Effect Size)
A small association does not mean that there is not a causal effect, though the larger the association, the more likely that it is causal. There is a very weakly positive relationship between Vitamin B Complex and Heart Rate (Pulse)

Consistency (A.K.A. Reproducibility)
Consistent findings observed by different persons in different places with different samples strengthens the likelihood of an effect. Furthermore, in accordance with the law of large numbers (LLN), the predictive power and accuracy of these results will continually grow over time. 504 paired data points were used in this analysis. Assuming that the relationship is merely coincidental, as the participant independently modifies their Vitamin B Complex values, the observed strength of the relationship will decline until it is below the threshold of significance. To it another way, in the case that we do find a spurious correlation, suggesting that banana intake improves mood for instance, one will likely increase their banana intake. Due to the fact that this correlation is spurious, it is unlikely that you will see a continued and persistent corresponding increase in mood. So over time, the spurious correlation will naturally dissipate.

Specificity
Causation is likely if a very specific population at a specific site and disease with no other likely explanation. The more specific an association between a factor and an effect is, the bigger the probability of a causal relationship.

Temporality
The effect has to occur after the cause (and if there is an expected delay between the cause and expected effect, then the effect must occur after that delay). The confidence in a causal relationship is bolstered by the fact that time-precedence was taken into account in all calculations.

Biological Gradient
Greater exposure should generally lead to greater incidence of the effect. However, in some cases, the mere presence of the factor can trigger the effect. In other cases, an inverse proportion is observed: greater exposure leads to lower incidence.

Plausibility
A plausible bio-chemical mechanism between cause and effect is critical. This is where human brains excel. Based on our responses so far, 1 humans feel that there is a plausible mechanism of action and 0 feel that any relationship observed between Vitamin B Complex and Heart Rate (Pulse) is coincidental.

Coherence
Coherence between epidemiological and laboratory findings increases the likelihood of an effect. It will be very enlightening to aggregate this data with the data from other participants with similar genetic, diseasomic, environmentomic, and demographic profiles.

Experiment
All of human life can be considered a natural experiment. Occasionally, it is possible to appeal to experimental evidence.

Analogy
The effect of similar factors may be considered.

Relationship Statistics

Property Value
Cause Variable Name Vitamin B Complex
Effect Variable Name Heart Rate (Pulse)
Sinn Predictive Coefficient 0.079
Confidence Level high
Confidence Interval 2.5830227741572
Forward Pearson Correlation Coefficient 0.071
Critical T Value 1.646
Average Vitamin B Complex Over Previous 7 days Before ABOVE Average Heart Rate ( Pulse) 0.44 pills
Average Vitamin B Complex Over Previous 7 days Before BELOW Average Heart Rate ( Pulse) 0.411 pills
Duration of Action 7 days
Effect Size very weakly positive
Number of Paired Measurements 504
Optimal Pearson Product 0.0055913369719898
P Value 0.095742537670723
Statistical Significance 0.9953
Strength of Relationship 2.5830227741572
Study Type individual
Analysis Performed At 2019-04-04

Vitamin B Complex Statistics

Property Value
Variable Name Vitamin B Complex (pills)
Aggregation Method MEAN
Analysis Performed At 2019-01-16
Duration of Action 7 days
Kurtosis 4.1018950328957
Maximum Allowed Value 20 pills
Mean 0.16955 pills
Median 0 pills
Minimum Allowed Value 0 pills
Number of Changes 112
Number of Correlations 39
Number of Measurements 37
Onset Delay 30 minutes
Standard Deviation 0.37517132407651
Unit Pills
UPC 052301329014
Variable ID 1477
Variance 0.14075352240932

Heart Rate (Pulse) Statistics

Property Value
Variable Name Heart Rate (Pulse)
Aggregation Method MEAN
Analysis Performed At 2019-04-04
Duration of Action 7 days
Kurtosis 3.1677287096038
Mean 92.019 beats per minute
Median 92.416666666667 beats per minute
Minimum Allowed Value 0 beats per minute
Number of Changes 663
Number of Correlations 2215
Number of Measurements 15805
Onset Delay 0 seconds
Standard Deviation 16.571067637136
Unit Beats per Minute
UPC 851697006178
Variable ID 1342
Variance 274.60028263454

Tracking Vitamin B Complex

Record your Vitamin B Complex daily in the reminder inbox or using the interactive web or mobile notifications.

Tracking Heart Rate (Pulse)

Get Withings here and use it to record your Heart Rate (Pulse). Once you have a Withings account, you can import your data from the Import Data page. This individual's data will automatically be imported and analyzed.
Join This Study

https://lh6.googleusercontent.com/-BHr4hyUWqZU/AAAAAAAAAAI/AAAAAAAIG28/2Lv0en738II/photo.jpg Principal Investigator - Mike Sinn